多浆植物吧 关注:1,047,806贴子:17,463,704

【拟石莲属档案】Echeveria Cante 广寒宫

只看楼主收藏回复

闲来深挖一下某些经典的多肉品种的由来,就从最受欢迎的广寒宫开始。
广寒宫拉丁命名Echeveria Cante ,在相关的国外资料网站检索后,发现了部分有趣的文献。这也涉及到一开始植物学界对广寒宫命名时候出现的乌龙。
由于文献是全英文版本的,所以我也就翻译成了中文来和大家分享一下。缓慢更新,喜欢的请点击只看楼主或者点击关注




部分图片资料来自于互联网,


回复
1楼2018-03-08 12:10
    论文名字叫做:E. Cante(广寒宫),一种来自ZACATECAS山的新品种
    论文发表于1997年,这个时间也是Cante这个名字第一次写入多肉的植物学命名中,并且沿用至今。但是相对奇怪的,广寒宫这个物种却很早就在多肉养殖行业中存在,并且存在了很长的时间。但是正式命名确是在很多年后,这期间有部分原因存在。


    收起回复
    3楼2018-03-08 12:14
      论文摘要:
      在研究了一些来自墨西哥中部的五个州的九个地方的Echeveria subrigida(刚叶莲),部分Echeveria Gibbiflorae(粉彩莲),发现一部分来自Zacatecas西北部的人群把其与这两个物种混淆了。来自前九个地区的植物样品与圣路易斯波托西州典型的刚叶莲无差异,包括描述为E. palmeri的样品。然而,来自萨卡特卡斯的植物是一种新的未描述的物种,我们以Canche,A.C.的名字命名为Echeveria cante Glass&Mendoza(Glass和Mendoza为命名人)。它不同于刚叶莲,它拥有的大量的白色被粉而不像刚叶莲叶片上苍白的少量粉霜,它们叶片比刚叶莲的更窄,更厚,通常更长,在比较中在花上还存在各种差异。
      其中我要解释几点
      1.Echeveria cante Glass&Mendoza中,最后的Glass&Mendoza表示命名人
      2.当时人们眼中的广寒宫被命名为刚叶莲,并且在当时西方养殖行业也广泛运用,但其实和真正的刚叶莲是有区别的。


      论文图片1. E. Cante (Gl. & F. 1976年)在Zacatecas的Sombrerete和Fresnillo之间的栖息地原生图片。


      收起回复
      4楼2018-03-08 12:18
        继续


        收起回复
        来自Android客户端5楼2018-03-08 12:20
          论文正文第一段:
          至少在过去的半个世纪里,一个名为“Echeveria subrigida”的植物在美国和英格兰都成为成功赢家。1969年11月,Glass在离开墨西哥城的Bob Foster机场后,花费大量时间悠闲地攀登从萨卡特卡斯市到杜兰戈市的山脉,在他看来这是找到新的或有趣的植物材料的最佳途径。在Sierra de Chapultepec北部(北回归线附近的塞普尔特佩克),他偶然发现了一丛靠近崎岖山峰的植物,它看起来非常美丽,令人叹为观止。它看起来像仙女杯属中的D. pulverulenta(雪山)或D. brittonii(布瑞冬尼),但这些仙女杯不可能出现在这些山中。他认为这株植物一定是之前在加利福尼亚州看过的刚叶莲。他收集植株标本并且标记下了标号Gl. & F. 1676.他于1970年5月再次返回当地,此次他们收集了更多的材料,编号为Gl. & F. 2645。


          此时的植物界,错误地将广寒宫当作刚叶莲来养殖。
          同时附上D. pulverulenta(雪山)


          收起回复
          6楼2018-03-08 12:22
            D. brittonii(布瑞冬尼)


            回复
            7楼2018-03-08 12:23
              直到1972年2月,他才真正在墨西哥州的野外,Tultenango峡谷地区看到了真正的刚叶莲,并且认识到野外的刚叶莲与那些年在培养植株中到的差异!伴随着Mammillaria pringlei(朝日丸,一种仙人球)在野外的惊人呈现,在Tultenango峡谷中,刚叶莲生长在铁轨上方众多悬崖峭壁上。由于当时没有对景天科进行分类学分类,所以他没有对他们进行系统的重新分类。John Pilbeam在我们墨西哥之行的记录本上阅读了我们记录的资料,并声称他亲眼看到我们记录的植物高达两英寸。他随后在他的文章“真正的Echeveria subrigida请站出来好吗?”(1991)中提出了关于这种错误认识的疑惑。


              注:在1972年,有人开始提出,当时植物界命名为刚叶莲的植物并不是真正的刚叶莲,因为在刚叶莲真正原产地的形态和当时在欧洲种植的形态并不相同。


              论文图2. 在伯克利植物园培养的广寒宫图


              收起回复
              8楼2018-03-08 12:29
                正如里德莫兰所指出的那样,“虽然瓦尔特将刚叶莲描述为明显的白色粉霜,并通过它的银叶来同E. palmeri区分,但事实上,当地的刚叶莲比他描述的植物更加的绿。我们将更近一步的提出,典型的野外真实刚叶莲不像描述的那样,是高度白色的,并且可以猜到,瓦尔特被来自Zacatecas的假的刚叶莲混淆了典型刚叶莲的一些特征,并做出了错误的描述。在1957年,旧金山斯特林植物园主任Eric Walther去世。


                收起回复
                9楼2018-03-08 12:31
                  在二十世纪六十年代,Glass和Foster在斯特林植物园作为评委参加了一项展览,他们将一等奖颁给了一个名为E. subrigida(刚叶莲)的宏伟植物,这毫无疑问是我们现在描述为E. cante的植物。旧金山仙人掌和多肉协会的成员们相当吃惊地发现, 一种 "如此普通、容易生长" 的植物被授予如此高的荣誉,这意味着在瓦尔特时期, 这种形式的植物就已经存在, 所以他必须去了解它。Myron Kimnach也证实了这一点,他在20世纪50年代在伯克利植物园向我说,他在加利福尼亚大学植物园工作期间也培养了我们命名为广寒宫的植物,当时被称为作为刚叶莲,然而真正的刚叶莲当时并未在海湾地区种植。


                  收起回复
                  10楼2018-03-08 12:34
                    1991年,在来墨西哥生活并与Cante,A.C.组织合作后,Glass决定他需要用一种非常壮观美丽的植物来纪念这个组织,因为这个组织在墨西哥做了很多植物学和园艺学方面的贡献。由于这几十年间没有人对广寒宫进行真实的命名,所以他选择了这种精致植物作作为代表,他同时邀请了同事Mario MendozaGarcía帮助他进行这一命名。我们选择Cante作为广寒宫的种名,这是一个Pame-Chichimeca语词,意思是“生命之水”。



                    广寒宫花序标本图


                    回复
                    11楼2018-03-08 12:36

                      图3. Federico Gama博士自豪地拿着以他组织名字命名的植物标本


                      回复
                      12楼2018-03-08 12:36
                        关于广寒宫的一些基本资料


                        资料来自外文网站,翻译大致如下
                        植株直径 长达40CM
                        花间高度 45-60厘米
                        花色 橙色到粉色
                        花期 八月到九月
                        繁殖方式 种子(特别备注,一般广寒宫不推荐叶插,成功率过低,因此不列入繁殖方式)


                        回复
                        13楼2018-03-08 12:44
                          附上论文原文
                          ECHEVERIA CANTE, A NEW SPECIES FROM THE MOUNTAINS OF ZACATECAS
                          CHARLES GLASS & MARIO MENDOZA-GARCÍA
                          Investigators with Cante, A.C.,
                          Mesones 71,
                          San Miguel de Allende 3700,
                          Guanajuato, Mexico

                          Summary. Forms of Echeveria subrigida (Crassulaceae), section Gibbiflorae, are studied from nine localities in five states of central Mexico, as well as a population from northwestern Zacatecas which has been confused with that species.The plant material from the first nine localities is indistingui****le from typical E. subrigida, including the form described as E. palmeri, from the state of San Luis Potosí. It is concluded, however, that the plant from Zacatecas is a new, undescribed species which we are naming in honor of Cante, A.C., as Echeveria cante Glass & Mendoza. It differs from E. subrigida in its greater number of farinose rather than glaucous to pruinose leaves, which are narrower and thicker as well as generally longer than those of E. subrigida. There are also various floral differences noted under "Comparison".


                          A plant labeled "Echeveria subrigida" has been a show winner, both in the States and in England, for at least the last half century. In November of 1969, after leaving Bob Foster at the airport in Mexico City, Glass leisurely made his way up from Zacatecas City to Durango City, spending much time just climbing over the hills, the best way to find new or interesting material. In the Sierra de Chapultepec, near the Tropic of Cancer in northern Zacatecas, he came across a plant near the craggy peaks that was so breath-takingly beautiful that at seeing it he gave out a loud gasp. It looked like a Dudleya species of the type of D. pulverulenta or D. brittonii, but of course they wouldn't be here in these mountains. He assumed it must be the Echeveria subrigida he had seen in shows back in California. He collected material under their number, Gl. & F. 1676. He returned again the next year, in May of 1970, this time with Bob, and they collected more material under the number, Gl. & F. 2645.

                          It was not until February of 1972 that he actually saw true Echeveria subrigida in the wild, at the type locality, Tultenango Canyon, in the state of Mexico, and realized how different it was from what was generally seen in cultivation in those years and from his numbers, Gl. & F. 1676 and 2645! At Tultenango Canyon it grows on the cliffs cut above the railroad tracks in considerable quantities, along with an exceedingly impressive display of Mammillaria pringlei. Not being involved taxonomically with Crassulaceae at the time, he did nothing about the new taxon. John Pilbeam read our articles in our Mexico logbook and claims that his eyebrows shot up a full two inches on seeing our color plate of the false E. subrigida and picture of the true E. subrigida from the type locality. He subsequently wrote (1991) about the apparent confusion with this misidentification in his article, "Will the real Echeveria subrigida please stand up?".



                          As Reid Moran notes, "Although Walther described E. subrigida as strikingly white-pruinose and distinguished it from E. palmeri by its silver foliage, the fact is that plants at the type locality (of E. subrigida) are much greener than this and that this is a most extreme form" (pers. com). We would go further than this and state that plants at the type locality of E. subrigida are scarcely more than highly glaucous and enter the realm of conjecture by imagining that Walther was confusing the misidentified, "false subrigida" from Zacatecas with typical E. subrigida. Indeed, Eric Walther, Director of the Strybing Arboretum in San Francisco until 1957, died in 1959; in the 1960s, Glass and Foster judged a show at the Strybing Arboretum in which they awarded first prize as "Best in Show" to a magnificent plant labelled E. subrigida that was unquestionably the entity we are now describing as E. cante. Members of the San Francisco Cactus & Succulent Society were quite taken aback that a plant "so common and easy to grow" was awarded so high an honor—which implies that this form had been around during Walther's day and that he had to have been familiar with it. This has been confirmed by Myron Kimnach, who stated to me (pers. comm.) that back in the 1950s in Berkeley, at the Botanic Garden of the University of California where he worked, he grew the plant we are naming E. cante as "E subrigida" and that the true E. subrigida was not in cultivation in the Bay Area at the time.

                          In 1991, after coming to Mexico to live and to work with Cante, A.C., Glass decided that he needed a really spectacularly beautiful plant to name in honor of that wonderful organization, which is doing so much botanically and horticulturally for Mexico, and since no one had described it in the intervening decades, he chose this exquisite Zacatecas plant for that honor, inviting his associate, Mario Mendoza García, to assist him in that description. We chose to use as the epithet the name "cante" as a noun in aposition. "Cante" is a Pame-Chichimeca word meaning "the water that gives life".


                          回复
                          14楼2018-03-08 12:51
                            已阅


                            回复
                            来自Android客户端15楼2018-03-08 13:50
                              懂了


                              回复
                              16楼2018-03-08 14:43
                                自家顶一下,欢迎各种晒图~


                                回复
                                来自iPhone客户端17楼2018-03-08 17:21


                                  回复
                                  来自Android客户端18楼2018-03-08 17:26
                                    那些年坑过人的拟石莲系列


                                    收起回复
                                    来自Android客户端19楼2018-03-08 18:58
                                      科普贴,真棒


                                      回复
                                      来自Android客户端20楼2018-03-08 19:39


                                        收起回复
                                        来自iPhone客户端21楼2018-03-08 19:47
                                          大神,为什么我的广寒宫这样呢,最外面一层叶子一节一节的消耗,是浇水少了吗?
                                          朝南封闭阳台~~~大概半个月浇一次水~~




                                          收起回复
                                          22楼2018-03-08 21:54
                                            继续更新一些基本信息,昨天有一点描述资料没有进行翻译,今天一并把它做完吧


                                            描述:孤立的玫瑰花形,无梗,直径30~40厘米,叶片长约15~18.5厘米,宽约6.5~7厘米,基部叶片宽约为3厘米,附着处约24毫米宽,10毫米厚,上方叶片约6毫米厚,上部叶片坦到稍微凹陷,没有明显的沟槽,下面略微凸起,没有龙骨,基部附属物约24毫米宽,叶片淡绿色至淡紫色,被乳白色厚粉,叶片边缘薄而窄,有时在顶点附近有轻微褶皱或边缘褶皱。


                                            回复
                                            23楼2018-03-09 08:50
                                              花序在夏末成熟;花茎侧向上升,颜色呈现黄红色,通常花朵单生,偶尔有2-4朵共生,花茎长45-60厘米长,靠近基部处约10毫米粗,在3-8厘米处约5~8个分支,每个分支有4-12花。苞片55到17毫米长,4-10毫米宽,会很快干燥和凋谢。


                                              回复
                                              24楼2018-03-09 08:52
                                                花梗长4-17毫米,厚4毫米。 花朵长约23毫米; 萼片长10-15毫米,在基部附近7-9毫米宽,苞片呈现灰色到淡紫色,弯曲,上升; 花冠长10-15毫米,宽7-9毫米; 最宽处为靠近基部的直径10-15毫米的花冠; 花瓣长20毫米,宽6-8毫米,稍带小圆形,外面具紫色橙黄色粉红色,稍微向外弯曲,开口9-10毫米,腰部直径5-7毫米,内表面微黄。


                                                回复
                                                25楼2018-03-09 08:53
                                                  雄蕊10个,花丝稍扁平,紧贴花瓣,长12-13毫米,具淡黄色圆柱状。 下半部分的心皮淡黄色,上半部分深红色。 蜜腺小,淡黄色粉或红色。 染色体数:n = 27。


                                                  注意:染色体数:n = 27!染色体数:n = 27!染色体数:n = 27!
                                                  喜欢杂交的同学们要确保你的两个母本染色体数相同,不然很可能杂交不出或者后代不育!!!


                                                  回复
                                                  26楼2018-03-09 08:55
                                                    同时附带上原生地的刚叶莲图片,确实在幼年期的时候,有些方面还是和广寒宫很像



                                                    回复
                                                    27楼2018-03-09 08:58
                                                      还有就是一个特别的信息,源于论文中这张图片


                                                      图片中的植物被认为是刚叶莲的一个形式,被称为E. paltmert,这个外形和名字都很像爽之鹤,但是却找不到相关的确实记录


                                                      收起回复
                                                      28楼2018-03-09 09:10
                                                        好文章!


                                                        收起回复
                                                        来自Android客户端29楼2018-03-10 12:39
                                                          顶帖,叶插成功过一次


                                                          回复
                                                          来自iPhone客户端30楼2018-03-10 21:26
                                                            我这个是不,养成了食指粗的桩子


                                                            收起回复
                                                            来自Android客户端33楼2018-03-15 11:33